Factors Affecting the Sleep Quality of Patients in the Intensive Care Unit

Main Article Content

Barkah Waladani
Endah Setianingsih
Juni Sofiana
Corresponding Author:
Barkah Waladani | b.waladani@unimugo.ac.id



Abstract

Introduction: The condition of the patient in the intensive room and the environmental conditions that occur in the intensive room can affect the quality of the patient's sleep. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that influence the quality of sleep of patients in the intensive care unit.


Methods: This research is a type of quantitative research using descriptive analytical methods. The time approach used is cross- sectional. The sample in this study amounted to 90 respondents.


Results: The results showed that the p value of each factor was physical factor p 0.027, noise p 0.020, lighting p 0.043, and activity p 0.000. The p value of the 4 factors is smaller than <0.05, thus indicating that physical variables, noise, lighting and activity have an influence on sleep quality. The strength of the relationship can be seen from the value of OR (EXP [B]), seen from the largest to the smallest values are activity (OR: 5,686), lighting (OR: 2,781), physical (2,040) and noise (OR: 1,491). Based on these results, the most influencing factor for sleep quality is activity.


Conclusion: The conclusion of this study is that the factors that affect sleep quality are physical, noise, lighting, and activity. The most influencing factor for sleep quality is activity. Recommendations that can be done are to suppress or reduce factors that affect sleep quality.

Article Details

How to Cite
[1]
B. Waladani, E. Setianingsih, and J. Sofiana, “Factors Affecting the Sleep Quality of Patients in the Intensive Care Unit”, Babali Nurs. Res., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 333-343, Nov. 2022.
Section
Original Research

References

[1] M. T. Altman, M. P. Knauert, T. E. Murphy, A. M. Ahasic, Z. Chauhan, dan M. A. Pisani, “Association of intensive care unit delirium with sleep disturbance and functional disability after critical illness: an observational cohort study,” Annals of Intensive Care, vol. 8, no. 1, hlm. 63, Mei 2018, doi: 10.1186/s13613-018-0408-4.

[2] Y. Boyko, P. Jennum, M. Nikolic, R. Holst, H. Oerding, dan P. Toft, “Sleep in intensive care unit: The role of environment,” Journal of Critical Care, vol. 37, hlm. 99–105, Feb 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2016.09.005.

[3] E. H. Cho, M.-Y. Lee, dan M.-H. Hur, “The Effects of Aromatherapy on Intensive Care Unit Patients’ Stress and Sleep Quality: A Nonrandomised Controlled Trial,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2017, hlm. 2856592, Des 2017, doi: 10.1155/2017/2856592.

[4] R. D. Naik, K. Gupta, M. Soneja, A. Elavarasi, V. Sreenivas, dan S. Sinha, “Sleep Quality and Quantity in Intensive Care Unit Patients: A Cross-sectional Study,” Indian J Crit Care Med, vol. 22, no. 6, hlm. 408–414, Jun 2018, doi: 10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_65_18.

[5] F. J. Romero-Bermejo, “Sleep quality in intensive care unit: Are we doing our best for our patients?,” Indian J Crit Care Med, vol. 18, no. 4, hlm. 191–192, Apr 2014, doi: 10.4103/0972-5229.130567.

[6] L. Parrino, R. Ferri, M. Zucconi, dan F. Fanfulla, “Commentary from the Italian Association of Sleep Medicine on the AASM manual for the scoring of sleep and associated events: For debate and discussion,” Sleep Medicine, vol. 10, no. 7, hlm. 799–808, Agu 2009, doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2009.05.009.

[7] G. Alsulami, A. M. Rice, dan L. Kidd, “Prospective repeated assessment of self-reported sleep quality and sleep disruptive factors in the intensive care unit: acceptability of daily assessment of sleep quality,” BMJ Open, vol. 9, no. 6, hlm. e029957, Jun 2019, doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-029957.

[8] M. Engwall, I. Fridh, L. Johansson, I. Bergbom, dan B. Lindahl, “Lighting, sleep and circadian rhythm: An intervention study in the intensive care unit,” Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, vol. 31, no. 6, hlm. 325–335, Des 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.iccn.2015.07.001.

[9] M. N. Grossman et al., “Awakenings? Patient and Hospital Staff Perceptions of Nighttime Disruptions and Their Effect on Patient Sleep,” Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, vol. 13, no. 02, hlm. 301–306, doi: 10.5664/jcsm.6468.

[10] M. A. Pisani, R. S. Friese, B. K. Gehlbach, R. J. Schwab, G. L. Weinhouse, dan S. F. Jones, “Sleep in the Intensive Care Unit,” Am J Respir Crit Care Med, vol. 191, no. 7, hlm. 731–738, Apr 2015, doi: 10.1164/rccm.201411-2099CI.

[11] N. Daryaswanti, N. Pendet, dan N. Febianingsih, “Characteristics of Sleep Quality of Nursing Students in Bali During Pandemic Covid-19 | Babali Nursing Research,” Jul 2021, Diakses: 28 November 2022. [Daring]. Tersedia pada: https://babalinursingresearch.com/index.php/BNR/article/view/54

[12] C. Rault et al., “Impact of Sleep Deprivation on Respiratory Motor Output and Endurance. A Physiological Study,” Am J Respir Crit Care Med, vol. 201, no. 8, hlm. 976–983, Apr 2020, doi: 10.1164/rccm.201904-0819OC.

[13] B. B. Kamdar, D. M. Needham, dan N. A. Collop, “Sleep Deprivation in Critical Illness: Its Role in Physical and Psychological Recovery,” J Intensive Care Med, vol. 27, no. 2, hlm. 97–111, Mar 2012, doi: 10.1177/0885066610394322.

[14] F. G. Beltrami, X.-L. Nguyen, C. Pichereau, E. Maury, B. Fleury, dan S. Fagondes, “Sleep in the intensive care unit,” J. bras. pneumol., vol. 41, hlm. 539–546, Des 2015, doi: 10.1590/S1806-37562015000000056.

[15] V. J. Ehlers, H. Watson, dan M. M. Moleki, “Factors contributing to sleep deprivation in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit in South Africa : original research,” Curationis, vol. 36, no. 1, hlm. 1–8, Jan 2013, doi: 10.4102/curationis.v36i1.72.

[16] F. M. Coyer, M. K. Wheeler, S. M. Wetzig, dan B. A. Couchman, “Nursing care of the mechanically ventilated patient: What does the evidence say?: Part two,” Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, vol. 23, no. 2, hlm. 71–80, Apr 2007, doi: 10.1016/j.iccn.2006.08.004.

[17] F. P. Cappuccio, D. Cooper, L. D’Elia, P. Strazzullo, dan M. A. Miller, “Sleep duration predicts cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies,” European Heart Journal, vol. 32, no. 12, hlm. 1484–1492, Jun 2011, doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehr007.

[18] M. P. Hoevenaar-Blom, A. M. W. Spijkerman, D. Kromhout, J. F. van den Berg, dan W. M. M. Verschuren, “Sleep Duration and Sleep Quality in Relation to 12-Year Cardiovascular Disease Incidence: The MORGEN Study,” Sleep, vol. 34, no. 11, hlm. 1487–1492, Nov 2011, doi: 10.5665/sleep.1382.

[19] K. Persson Waye, E.-M. Elmenhorst, I. Croy, dan E. Pedersen, “Improvement of intensive care unit sound environment and analyses of consequences on sleep: an experimental study,” Sleep Medicine, vol. 14, no. 12, hlm. 1334–1340, Des 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2013.07.011.

[20] L. J. Delaney, F. Van Haren, dan V. Lopez, “Sleeping on a problem: the impact of sleep disturbance on intensive care patients - a clinical review,” Annals of Intensive Care, vol. 5, no. 1, hlm. 3, Feb 2015, doi: 10.1186/s13613-015-0043-2.

[21] L. M. Pulak dan L. Jensen, “Sleep in the Intensive Care Unit: A Review,” J Intensive Care Med, vol. 31, no. 1, hlm. 14–23, Jan 2016, doi: 10.1177/0885066614538749.

[22] N. T. Ayas, A. Malhotra, dan S. Parthsarathy, “To Sleep, or Not to Sleep, That Is the Question,” Critical care medicine, vol. 41, no. 7, hlm. 1808, Jul 2013, doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31828ce8c0.

[23] K. S. Simons et al., “Noise in the intensive care unit and its influence on sleep quality: a multicenter observational study in Dutch intensive care units,” Critical Care, vol. 22, no. 1, hlm. 250, Okt 2018, doi: 10.1186/s13054-018-2182-y.

[24] J. L. Darbyshire dan J. D. Young, “An investigation of sound levels on intensive care units with reference to the WHO guidelines,” Crit Care, vol. 17, no. 5, hlm. R187, Sep 2013, doi: 10.1186/cc12870.

[25] M. Younes, P. K. Schweitzer, K. S. Griffin, R. Balshaw, dan J. K. Walsh, “Comparing two measures of sleep depth/intensity,” Sleep, vol. 43, no. 12, hlm. zsaa127, Des 2020, doi: 10.1093/sleep/zsaa127.

[26] J. E. Tonna et al., “The Effect of a Quality Improvement Intervention on Sleep and Delirium in Critically Ill Patients in a Surgical ICU,” Chest, vol. 160, no. 3, hlm. 899–908, Sep 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2021.03.030.

[27] S. Horsten, L. Reinke, A. R. Absalom, dan J. E. Tulleken, “Systematic review of the effects of intensive-care-unit noise on sleep of healthy subjects and the critically ill,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 120, no. 3, hlm. 443–452, Mar 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.bja.2017.09.006.

[28] K. E. Schwab, B. Ronish, D. M. Needham, A. Q. To, J. L. Martin, dan B. B. Kamdar, “Actigraphy to Evaluate Sleep in the Intensive Care Unit. A Systematic Review,” Annals ATS, vol. 15, no. 9, hlm. 1075–1082, Sep 2018, doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201801-004OC.

[29] M. Elbaz et al., “Sound level intensity severely disrupts sleep in ventilated ICU patients throughout a 24-h period: a preliminary 24-h study of sleep stages and associated sound levels,” Ann. Intensive Care, vol. 7, no. 1, hlm. 25, Mar 2017, doi: 10.1186/s13613-017-0248-7.

[30] L. P. Voigt et al., “Monitoring sound and light continuously in an intensive care unit patient room: A pilot study,” Journal of Critical Care, vol. 39, hlm. 36–39, Jun 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2016.12.020.

[31] J. Wang dan H. Greenberg, “Sleep and the ICU,” The Open Critical Care Medicine Journal, vol. 6, no. 1, Des 2013, Diakses: 22 September 2022. [Daring]. Tersedia pada: https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOCCMJ-6-80

[32] P. F. Czempik, A. Jarosińska, K. Machlowska, dan M. Pluta, “Impact of Light Intensity on Sleep of Patients in the Intensive Care Unit: A Prospective Observational Study,” Indian J Crit Care Med, vol. 24, no. 1, hlm. 33–37, Jan 2020, doi: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23323.

[33] E. R. Lusczek dan M. P. Knauert, “Light Levels in ICU Patient Rooms: Dimming of Daytime Light in Occupied Rooms,” Journal of Patient Experience, vol. 8, hlm. 23743735211033104, Jan 2021, doi: 10.1177/23743735211033104.

[34] F. Bellon et al., “Effects of nursing interventions to improve inpatients’ sleep in intensive and non-intensive care units: Findings from an umbrella review,” Journal of Clinical Nursing, vol. n/a, no. n/a, doi: 10.1111/jocn.16251.

[35] M. Ritmala-Castren, I. Virtanen, S. Leivo, K.-M. Kaukonen, dan H. Leino-Kilpi, “Sleep and nursing care activities in an intensive care unit,” Nursing & Health Sciences, vol. 17, no. 3, hlm. 354–361, 2015, doi: 10.1111/nhs.12195.

[36] S. Çelik, D. Öztekin, N. Akyolcu, dan H. İşsever, “Sleep disturbance: the patient care activities applied at the night shift in the intensive care unit,” Journal of Clinical Nursing, vol. 14, no. 1, hlm. 102–106, 2005, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2004.01010.x.

[37] A. Le, R. S. Friese, C.-H. Hsu, J. L. Wynne, P. Rhee, dan T. O’Keeffe, “Sleep disruptions and nocturnal nursing interactions in the intensive care unit,” Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 177, no. 2, hlm. 310–314, Okt 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2012.05.038.